Low operating costs
1 - Built-in supportability
The RAFALE supportability and mission readiness claims are supported by the undisputed track record of the earlier generation of French fighters, such as the combat-proven MIRAGE 2000.
From the early beginning of the development phase, the French MoD assigned very stringent “integrated logistic support” (ILS) requirements to the RAFALE programme. “Computer aided design” (CAD) with the Dassault Systèmes CATIA software suite, concurrent engineering and bold technological choices ultimately produced an ILS system that exceeds the original supportability requirements.
The following examples, selected from a range of unique and innovative features, demonstrate the advance in reliability, accessibility and maintainability brought by the RAFALE:
- Based on 20 years plus of experience gained on the MIRAGE 2000, integrated testability of the Weapon Delivery and Navigation System (WDNS) has proven itself. Accordingly, it has been decided on the RAFALE to extend it to all aircraft systems. Thanks to accurate and comprehensive testability features, it allows targeted replacements to be made on the flight line, down to electronic circuit boards and specific components.
- Human factors engineering work has been conducted with CATIA in order to ensure the accessibility of the components within aircraft bays, so that all flight line operations can be carried out by a single technician. Special attention has been paid to minimizing the duration of these operations and the occurrence of errors.
- The centralised armament safety system makes all safety pins and last chance / end-of-runway actions unnecessary, minimising the risk of errors and accidents, and contributing to achieve an unbeatable “turn around time” (TAT).
- Precision manufacturing techniques together with the use of CATIA eliminate time-consuming boresighting procedures following cannon, head-up display (HUD) or radar exchanges.
- The groundbreaking design of the M88 suppresses the requirement for a check on a dedicated engine test bench before reinstalling it back on the aircraft.
- Deployments on forward operating bases, including austere airfields, have been made easier by keeping ground support equipment to a minimum :
- The RAFALE is fitted with an on-board oxygen generation system (OBOGS) which suppresses the need for liquid oxygen re-filling. Ground support equipment for the production and transportation of oxygen is no longer required
- Optronics are cooled by a closed-loop nitrogen circuit, which negates the need for a dedicated nitrogen supply chain.
- The built-in auxiliary power unit (APU) makes engine start-up possible even when no ground power cart is available.
- All ground support equipment is compact and foldable in order to be easily transportable by air. It can be used without external power. And only two types of carriages and cradles are necessary to perform all armament loading / unloading.
All these maintainability features have been thoroughly assessed and validated by French Navy and French Air Force maintainers.
2 - An affordable high-tech fighter
Thanks to its outstanding reliability, the RAFALE has lower maintenance costs.
- Its unique maintenance concept results in a lighter scheduled maintenance plan with less man-hours and a smaller number of maintenance technicians.
- For all its service life, the RAFALE does not have to leave its operational base for maintenance purposes. It does away with costly and time-consuming airframe and engine depot level inspections required on other types of fighter aircraft, with “shop replaceable units” (SRUs) the only items to be shipped for maintenance / repair.
- A case in point is the modular M88 engine, made up of 21 modules: all maintenance and repair can be done by returning nothing more than modules or discrete parts to the depot or to the manufacturer. No balancing procedure and no run-up check are necessary before returning the engine to service.
- Failure-prone systems have been eliminated early on in the design process:
- Another source of reduction of the required spares inventory comes from the constant standardisation approach during the design phase,
- The required spares inventory is further reduced by adapting the troubleshooting procedures to allow the exchange of electronic circuit boards within “line replaceable units” (LRUs) , rather than exchanging the LRUs : this applies to the RBE2 radar, the SPECTRA EW suite, the MDPU mission computer and to other equipment as well.
- Special attention has been paid to accessibility issues : for instance, the side-opening canopy facilitates the replacement of the ejection seat, so that two technicians can perform its removal in 10 minutes only.
- No heavy test equipment is needed around the RAFALE on the flight line: All checks at this level can be run by maintenance technicians on the aircraft itself.
- No test bench is needed for the M88 engine, a remarkable first in fighter aircraft maintenance.
- Based on significant experience in corrosion protection for carrier-based aircraft (Super-Etendard) and maritime patrol aircraft (ATL 1/ATL 2), DASSAULT AVIATION has developed new advanced corrosion protection processes which help drive down the cost of maintenance of the RAFALE : corrosion issues discovered during maintenance being the perfect “show stopper” which exceeds spending targets and delays the return of aircraft to service in the most unpredictable way.
- there is no airbrake
- the air intakes have no moving parts
- the ac generators do not have any constant speed drive (CSD)
- and the refuelling probe is fixed in order to avoid any deployment or retraction problem.
This results in reduced spares inventory, less man-hours and less ground support equipment.
- The same part number is used at various locations on the airframe : this is made possible with precision airframe manufacturing which allows to suppress fitting and boresighting operations when installing airframe components.
- Left-hand and right-hand parts are identical wherever applicable (i.e. foreplanes, FCS actuators).
- Miscelleanous parts such as screws and electronic modules have also been included into the standardisation effort.